One defining feature of ICTs is their ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ICT-based educational delivery e.
History[ edit ] CALL dates back to the s, when it was first introduced on university mainframe computers. Dozens of CALL programs are currently available on the internet, at prices ranging from free to expensive,  and other programs are available only through university language courses.
There have been several attempts to document the history of CALL. Most of these early programs still exist in modernised versions. Since the s, it has become increasingly difficult to categorise CALL as it now extends to the use of blogswikissocial networkingpodcastingWeb 2.
Rather than focusing on the typology of CALL, they identified three historical phases of CALL, classified according to their underlying pedagogical and methodological approaches: At first, both could be done only through text.
The computer would analyse students' input and give feedback, and more sophisticated programs would react to students' mistakes by branching to help screens and remedial activities.
While such programs and their underlying pedagogy still exist today, behaviouristic approaches to language learning have been rejected by most language teachers, and the increasing sophistication of computer technology has led CALL to other possibilities. It also allows for originality and flexibility in student output of language.
The communicative approach coincided with the arrival of the PC, which made computing much more widely available and resulted in a boom in the development of software for language learning. The first CALL software in this phase continued to provide skill practice but not in a drill format—for example: In this phase, computers provided context for students to use the language, such as asking for directions to a place, and programs not designed for language learning such as Sim CitySleuth and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?
Criticisms of this approach include using the computer in an ad hoc and disconnected manner for more marginal aims rather than the central aims of language teaching. It also coincided with the development of multimedia technology providing text, graphics, sound and animation as well as Computer-mediated communication CMC.
CALL in this period saw a definitive shift from the use of the computer for drill and tutorial purposes the computer as a finite, authoritative base for a specific task to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom.
Restricted CALL — mainly behaviouristic: Open CALL — i. Integrated CALL — still to be achieved. Bax argued that at the time of writing language teachers were still in the Open CALL phase, as true integration could only be said to have been achieved when CALL had reached a state of "normalisation" — e.
Flashcards[ edit ] A basic use of CALL is in vocabulary acquisition using flashcardswhich requires quite simple programs. Such programs often make use of spaced repetitiona technique whereby the learner is presented with the vocabulary items that need to be committed to memory at increasingly longer intervals until long-term retention is achieved.
This has led to the development of a number of applications known as spaced repetition systems SRS including the generic Anki or SuperMemo package and programs such as BYKI  and phase-6,  which have been designed specifically for learners of foreign languages.
Software design and pedagogy[ edit ] Above all, careful consideration must be given to pedagogy in designing CALL software, but publishers of CALL software tend to follow the latest trend, regardless of its desirability.
Moreover, approaches to teaching foreign languages are constantly changing, dating back to grammar-translationthrough the direct methodaudio-lingualism and a variety of other approaches, to the more recent communicative approach and constructivism Decoo Major CALL development projects are usually managed by a team of people: A subject specialist also known as a content provider — usually a language teacher — who is responsible for providing the content and pedagogical input.
More than one subject specialist is required for larger CALL projects. A programmer who is familiar with the chosen programming language or authoring tool. A graphic designer, to produce pictures and icons, and to advise on fonts, colour, screen layout, etc.
A professional photographer or, at the very least, a very good amateur photographer. Graphic designers often have a background in photography too. A sound engineer and a video technician will be required if the package is to contain substantial amounts of sound and video.
Developing a CALL package is more than just putting a text book into a computer.
Learner autonomy places the learner firmly in control so that he or she "decides on learning goals" Egbert et al. According to constructivist theory, learners are active participants in tasks in which they "construct" new knowledge derived from their prior experience.
Learners also assume responsibility for their learning, and the teacher is a facilitator rather than a purveyor of knowledge. Whole language theory embraces constructivism and postulates that language learning moves from the whole to the part, rather than building sub-skills to lead towards the higher abilities of comprehension, speaking, and writing.
It also emphasises that comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing skills are interrelated, reinforcing each other in complex ways. Language acquisition is, therefore, an active process in which the learner focuses on cues and meaning and makes intelligent guesses.
Additional demands are placed upon teachers working in a technological environment incorporating constructivist and whole language theories. Regarding the issue of teacher facilitation in such an environment, the teacher has a key role to play, but there could be a conflict between the aim to create an atmosphere for learner independence and the teacher's natural feelings of responsibility.
Other examples of technological aids that have been used in the foreign language classroom include slide projectors, film-strip projectors, film projectors, videocassette recorders and DVD players.May 01, · The Internet and social networking.
The Internet is a rich resource for teaching and learning. Web refers to a more recent 2nd generation collection of web-based tools, usually involving social networking (sites like facebook) and amateur publishing (like blogs and youTube). Toondoo lets you create comic strips and cartoons easily with just a few clicks, drags and drops.
Get started now! What benefits one can get from ICT in education? "Benefits of Using ICT in Learning for Development" I agree with all the advantages mentioned above, and I . Wiki is a collaborative workspace in which information can be gathered, shared, evaluated, organized or used to produce something new.
Learn about its use and advantages in education. Quotes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients.
Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.
A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology is a Web-based platform for the digital aspects of courses of study, usually within educational institutions. They present resources, activities and interactions within a course structure and provide for the different stages of assessment.
VLEs also usually report on participation; and have some level of integration with other.