It can happen that one cannot tell the truth, he repeats, but one can always refuse the lie. The Soviet regime appears to him to be perverse as such because it institutionalizes the lie: The first is a French philosopher turned political scientist or political sociologist who helped shape moderate and conservative opinion in France— and Europe—in the years after WWII. He showed the greatest lucidity in confronting the unique evil that is totalitarianism and was a model of balanced or equitable political reflection.
Post-Revolutionary literature Literature under Soviet rule The Bolshevik seizure of power in radically changed Russian literature.
After a brief period of relative openness compared to what followed in the s, literature became a tool of state propaganda. Officially approved writing the only kind that could be published by and large sank to a subliterary level. Censorship, imprisonment in labour camps, and mass terror were only part of the problem.
Writers were not only forbidden to create works that were dissident, formally complex, or objective a term of reproachbut they were also expected to fulfill the dictates of the Communist Party to produce propaganda on specific, often rather narrow, themes of current interest to it.
In addition to official Soviet Russian literature, two kinds of unofficial literature existed. Moreover, literature publishable at one time often lost favour later; although nominally acceptable, it was frequently unobtainable.
On many occasions, even officially celebrated works had to be rewritten to suit a shift in the Communist Party line.
Whereas pre-Revolutionary writers had been intensely aware of Western trends, for much of the Soviet period access to Western movements was severely restricted, as was foreign travel.
Access to pre-Revolutionary Russian writing was also spotty. From a literary point of view, unofficial literature clearly surpasses official literature. Only Mikhail Sholokhov —84 was clearly an official Soviet writer. Marina Tsvetayeva —regarded as one of the great poets of the 20th century, eventually returned to Russia, where she committed suicide.
Vladimir Nabokovwho later wrote in English, published nine novels in Russian, including Dar published serially —38; The Gift and Priglasheniye na kazn ; Invitation to a Beheading.
From the s to c. Isaak Babel wrote a brilliant cycle of linked stories, collected as Konarmiya ; Red Cavalryabout a Jewish commissar in a Cossack regiment. Formally chiseled and morally complex, these stories examine the seductive appeal of violence for the intellectual.
A modern literary genrethe dystopiawas invented by Yevgeny Zamyatin in his novel My ; Wewhich could be published only abroad. Like Chekhov, Zoshchenko was a master of the comic story focusing on everyday life. The Russian Formalists were a school of critics closely tied to the Futurists.
They developed a vibrant, comprehensive theory of literature and culture that inspired structuralism, an influential critical movement in the West.
Two of them, Viktor Shklovsky and Yury Tynyanov, wrote significant fiction illustrating their theories: Their respectful opponent, Mikhail Bakhtinwhom some consider the most original, far-ranging, and subtle theorist of literature in the 20th century, wrote Problemy tvorchestva Dostoyevskogo2nd ed.
Purges took the lives of millions more, among them Babel, Kharms, Mandelshtam, Pilnyak, the peasant poet Nikolay Klyuyev —and the director Vsevolod Meyerhold — In all independent literary groupings were dissolved and replaced by an institution that had no counterpart in the West, the Union of Soviet Writers.
In Socialist Realism was proclaimed the only acceptable form of writing. Others, such as Valentin Katayev in his production novel Vremya, vperyod!
The moral nadir of Soviet literature was reached in a collaborative volume, Belomorsko-Baltiski kanal imeni Stalina: With Gorky as an editor and 34 contributors, including Gorky, Katayev, Shklovsky, Aleksey Tolstoy, and Zoshchenko, the volume praised a project and the secret police who directed it using convict labour and costing tens of thousands of lives.
It tells of the Devil and his retinue visiting Soviet Russia, where they play practical jokes of metaphysical and political significance. The result is a joyful philosophical comedy of enormous profundity.
The period from until the death of Stalin in was one of severe repression known as the zhdanovshchinaor Zhdanovism. In Khrushchev delivered a famous speech denouncing certain Stalinist crimes. From that time on, it was possible for Russians to perceive orthodox communists as people of the past and to regard dissidents not as holdovers from before the Revolution but as progressives.Russian literature - Post-Revolutionary literature: The Bolshevik seizure of power in radically changed Russian literature.
After a brief period of relative openness (compared to what followed) in the s, literature became a tool of state propaganda. Officially approved writing (the only kind that could be published) by and large sank to . Raymond Aron and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn are two authors who have been very important to me over the years.
The first is a French philosopher turned political scientist or political sociologist who helped shape moderate and conservative opinion in France— and Europe—in the years after WWII. Alexander Solzhenitsyn, a Soviet dissident, espoused this philosophy to the Swedish Academy. Essay Comparing Solzhenitsyn's Gulag and Camus' The Stranger (The Outsider) - World Literature Paper “Solzhenitsyn use of selected language in justifying the main essence of the story” Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, a Russian writer of the.
An essay or paper on Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. *Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was becoming a dissident against the U.S.S.R. and the restricting communist government after he was arrested for the first time. He, through his entire life, was willing to sacrifice everything he had in order to point out that censorship was wrong and people should be able.
This essay concentrates on two representatives of the dissident movement in the Soviet Union in the s and in the s–Andrei Sakharov and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. *Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was becoming a dissident against the U. S. S. R. and the restricting communist government after he was arrested for the first time.
He, through his entire life, was willing to sacrifice everything he had in order to point out that censorship was .