Etiology of autism spectrum disorders:
A complex array of forces acts on the cassava sector, some of which favor its competitiveness, and others that are a detriment.
The outcome will be crucial to the segment of rural Asia that depends on cassava. Because of environmental constraints in most of the areas where it is cultivated, growers have few options for alternative crops.
Cassava is a key, sometimes the only key, to economic and social opportunity for these farmers. Cassava markets are highly diversified in Asia, stimulating a demand-led growth of the cassava sector in the past.
A significant part of this demand grew out of special international trade agreements with Europe, which are now being withdrawn. In global markets, cassava competes mainly with coarse grains, whose prices have tended gradually downward for the past fifty years in response to increasing production efficiencies.
The degree to which its production and utilization bring adequate benefits to the poor is very much dependent on future research and development investment. The key elements of that investment Asia 398 term paper focus on- production efficiency and profitability, conservation of the resource base, processing efficiency, and market development of specialized products.
Private and public sectors have a mutual interest in supporting a vital cassava industry. A significant institutional and technological base is already in place, on which to build new initiatives. The investments required to achieve these goals are substantial, but assuring a dynamic cassava sector in Asia will bring urgently needed benefits of poverty alleviation, equity, enhanced food security, and protection of the environment.
Despite rising urbanization, the majority of households still derive a significant part of their income from agriculture. Further, urban dwellers, especially the poor, rely on the success of agriculture to consistently fulfill their nutritional needs at an affordable cost.
Historically, few countries have realized sustained economic growth without the precursor of success in agriculture. Agricultural systems are universally complex - the interaction of multiple physical, biological, social and economic elements.
Overall improvement is rarely accomplished by changing a single factor. On the other hand, individual components within these complex systems may sometimes serve as a catalyst to stimulate and drive the changes needed to benefit specifically targeted populations.
Cassava in Asia is a good example. Because the crop and its products have specific linkages to common development goals, the cassava system is an appropriate focus for a concerted investment in research and development.
The urban poor benefit from availability of a low-cost calorie source. Industry and consumers alike gain from the multiple products for which cassava is a raw material.
National economies balance trade with cassava products through exports, or through import substitution. Cassava in Asia is almost wholly a commercial crop, and its success is strongly affected by the broader economic environment. Liberalized trade, regionally and globally, is breaking down the artificial cost barriers between internally and externally-produced goods.
Strong research investment in grains, especially in export-oriented developed countries, is driving prices downward and making them more attractive in food, animal feed and starch markets.
Continued acute underfunding for cassava could leave it in a less competitive position for new markets, and even in its traditional markets.
The objective is to set a framework for planning and prioritizing continued investment in research and development of cassava-based production, processing and utilization systems, toward meeting broad development goals.
Appropriately-focused research and development strategies can contribute substantially to meeting these goals. Food security Use of cassava for food in Asia is defined by its complementary position relative to rice, the highly preferred staple. From its introduction to Asia, through the middle part of this century, cassava was widely planted as a famine reserve crop.
Nonetheless, malnutrition remains a deep concern. In the Asia-Pacific region as whole, about million people were chronically malnourished in During the past two decades, much of the media and aid attention turned to Africa, where the numbers of chronically malnourished people doubled in this same period.
However, in absolute terms, in spite of remarkable improvements, malnutrition is far more prevalent in Asia, affecting about three times more people than in Africa. Like in Africa, cassava gains importance as a food security crop, relative to other staples, in times of political unrest, wars and famines.
In modern times, this has been especially relevant for China and Viet Nam. Across developing Asia, average annual per capita cassava consumption is just under 7 kg fresh root equivalent.
A generally positive income elasticity for cassava at the lower income levels creates a situation where increased production and lower prices will bring benefit almost exclusively to poor consumers.
Cassava nearly parallels maize in its consumption patterns across different income levels. Rice consumption falls off rapidly at the lower end of the income scale, and cassava and maize rise.
Cassava is consumed at low levels throughout the Philippines and Viet Nam. In India and China consumption is localized in the southern regions.For citation purposes: Shaw CA, Sheth S, Li D, Tomljenovic L.
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