How to do references for research paper

By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia.

How to do references for research paper

Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers.

Why references are necessary

Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science.

You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views. The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source.

Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. Sources that need to be acknowledged are not limited to books and journal articles, but include internet sites, computer software, written and e-mail correspondence, even verbal conversations with other people in person or by telephone.

All different kinds of sources must be acknowledged. Furthermore, if you use figures, illustrations, or graphical material, either directly or in modified form, that you did not yourself create or design, you need to acknowledge the sources of those figures. Details of Citing References in your Text When you cite a reference in your text you should use one of the following three formats: According to Rodgersthe Appalachian mountains were formed in three events.

The first of the three events occurred in the Ordovician, the second in the Devonian, and the third in the Carboniferous and Permian Periods Rodgers, You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.

Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines. If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If the reference you are citing has two authors, use the following format: Periods of glaciation have a large effect on sea level Ingmanson and Wallace, If the reference you are citing has more than two authors, use the following format: Hot spots are formed by the drift of plates over mantle plumes Vink et al.

If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person: It is possible to correct the raw dD values measured on the mass spectrometer Mark Conrad, Lawrence-Berkeley National Lab, personal communication.

How to Do a Reference Page for a Research Paper | Pen and the Pad

Later citations to the same person can be shortened, as in: If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mailyou would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.

Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be. The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from the Council of Biology Editors For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation: As New England is located at the convergence of several distinct storm tracks http: Such a source would be omitted from your References Cited or Bibliography section.

Details of Formatting Reference Lists Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more!

It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you have more than one entry by the same author, they should be further ordered by increasing publication date more recent papers last.

If you have multiple sources from a single author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c You should include enough information that your readers will be able to find these sources on their own.The reference page is a crucial element of your research paper; it helps you prevent plagiarism, and it proves you did your research.

By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia.

Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke ).

Citing References in Scientific Research Papers. Compiled by Timothy T.

Basic Guidelines

Allen, revised This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for distribution to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.

Citing References in Scientific Research Papers Compiled by Timothy T.

How to do references for research paper

Allen, revised This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for distribution to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.

DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES: Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. One must delineate between general reference for general knowledge and scholarly sources for in-depth knowledge and research.

Facts from reputable encyclopedias or similar sources can be used to supplement a paper, but keep in mind that these sources won’t .

Similarly, the references you cite should support the story building you create in your research paper. Don’t completely ignore the paper that could disprove your hypothesis. You want to show objectivity and that you took a balanced and unbiased approach to conducting your research. Sep 27,  · To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database. Once you've found at least 5 reputable sources, outline the information you've learned through your research%(). Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. 4. Your List of References. Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper.
How Many References Should I Include in a Research Paper? :: Wordvice ::